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  • 山西十一选五开奖结果查询:航天器总装工艺系统论文翻译

    文章来源:北京中慧言翻译公司    更新时间:2017-10-25 16:58:19

    山西十一选五复试 www.si6n.cn   基于PLM的航天器总装工艺系统的构建论文翻译

      基于PLM的航天器总装工艺系统的构建

      Construction of PLM-based Spacecraft General Assembly Process System

      摘要:针对三维设计条件下航天器总装工艺管理面临的挑战,分析了基于三维模型的工艺系统建设的应用需求,提出了航天器总装工艺系统的整体框架,并对系统实现中的关键技术问题给出了实现思路和方法。

      Abstract: Aimed at the challenges faced by spacecraft general assembly process management under 3D design condition, this paper analyzes the application demands for the construction of process system based on 3D model, puts forward the overall framework of spacecraft general assembly process system and gives the ideas and methods for key technical problems in system implementation.

      引 言Introduction

      随着信息技术的发展及其在制造业的深入应用,很多企业开始在产品设计中广泛地采用三维CAD技术,并通过推行MBD(Model Based Definition,基于模型的数字化定义)来提高企业的快速响应能力,也就是在三维模型中包含产品外形以及全部制造特征在内的信息,并在制造过程中完全以三维模型为设计、制造的唯一依据。

      With the development of information technology and its further application in manufacturing industry, many enterprises begin to widely use 3D CAD technology in product design and to improve their quick response abilities by carrying out MBD (Model Based Definition)), namely, the information on product appearance and all the manufacturing characteristics is contained in 3D model which shall serve as the sole basis for design and manufacturing in the process of manufacturing.

      国外企业的数字化设计制造技术起步较早,先后经历了以只使用二维工程图、二维为主三维为辅、三维为主简化二维图为辅以及全面推行独立三维模型定义的发展过程。波音公司在787项目中通过建立GCE((Global collaborative environment,全球协同环境)平台,基于网络建立了关联的单一数据源的核心流程和系统框架,实现了飞机研制的全生命周期的管理。

      Digital design and manufacturing technology was started relatively earlier in foreign enterprises, it has successively experienced the following development history: only 2D engineering drawing was used, 2D was primary and 3D was secondary, 3D was primary and simplified 2D was secondary and independent 3D model definition is comprehensively carried out. Through establishing GCE (Global collaborative environment) platform, Boeing Company established the core process and system framework of associated single data source based on network in Project 787, thus realizing the full lifecycle management for development of aircrafts.

      目前,国内航空航天行业在MBD的应用方面也发展迅速,很多企业制定了三维数字化设计标准,并建立了PLM平台用于管理三维设计数据。但是在数字化工艺设计和数字化制造方面,由于处于产业链下游,其应用实践相对数字化产品设计相对滞后,尚未形成成熟的工艺设计与制造模式。

      At present, domestic aerospace industry is developing rapidly in terms of application of MBD; many enterprises have established 3D digitalization design standards and established PLM platform to manage 3D design data. In terms of digitalized process design and digitalized manufacturing, however, its application practice is lagging relative to digitalized product design since it’s in the downstream industry chain, thus failing to form mature process design and manufacturing mode.

      如何在三维设计条件下,实现基于三维的工艺设计,对打通三维设计与制造通道,实现设计、制造一体化,提升企业竞争力具有重要的意义。

      How to realize 3D-based process design under the condition of 3D design is of great significance for opening up 3D design and manufacturing channel, realize integration of design and manufacturing and promote enterprise competitiveness.

      一、业务需求分析

      I. Business Requirement Analysis

      1、业务现状

      1. Business status quo

      航天器总装涉及从航天器各分系统交付总装进行验收开始至完成全部装配、测试并交付发射的全过程。在基于三维模型进行产品设计的新形势下,现行总装工艺模式严重制约了新型号的研制。主要表现在以下方面:

      Spacecraft general assembly involves the whole process from delivery of various subsystems of spacecraft for general assembly and acceptance to completion of all the assemblies and tests and to delivery for launch. Under the new situation of product design based on 3D model, the current general assembly process mode has seriously restricted the development of new models. It is mainly manifested in the following aspects:

      (1)缺乏管理三维设计模型及产品结构的数据管理平台。在基于三维模型的数字化设计制造条件下,原有的纸质设计文件被数字化的三维设计模型所取代。作为航天器总装的输入源头,这就迫切要求制造部门首先要把设计部门技术状态受控后的设计数据有效地管理起来。这些设计数据包括三维设计模型文件、设计技术要求、设计BOM等信息。

      (1) Lack of data management platform to manage 3D design model and product structure. Under the condition of digital design and manufacturing based on 3D model, the original paper design documents are replaced by digitalized 3D design models. First, this urges the manufacturing department to effectively manage the design data which serves as the input source of spacecraft general assembly after the technical state of design department is controlled. The design data includes 3D design model files, technical requirements of design, design BOM and other information.

      (2)缺乏基于三维模型的结构化工艺设计手段。总装与环境工程部工艺设计使用的还是信息化建设初期实施的表格化CAPP工具天河CAPP。这种工艺设计工具在需要工艺文件纸质输出时比较适用,但是在数字化制造普及的今天,已经满足不了新的业务需求。除了不支持三维模型外,由于工艺数据为非结构化数据,不利于与MES系统的集成。为此,在本单位实施MES系统的过程中,制定了若干规则对工艺设计格式进行限制,并采用复杂的算法对工艺数据进行了整理才实现了数据的共享。

      (2) Lack of structured process design means based on 3D model. Assembly and Environmental Engineering Department still uses tabulated CAPP tool—Tianhe CAPP which was implemented in the early stage of informatization construction for process design. This kind of process design tool is relatively applicable when paper process document output is needed; however, today when digital manufacturing is popularized, it can’t satisfy new business requirements. In addition to not supporting 3D model, since its process data is unstructured data, it is not conducive to integration with MES system. Therefore, in the process of implementation of MES system in this unit, some rules were formulated to restrict the process design format and complex algorithm was adopted to systemize the process data, data sharing was realized consequently.

      2、需求分析

      2. Demand analysis

      针对以上现状与问题,需要建立一套全新的基于三维模型的工艺实现框架。新的框架下应能够强化三维模型从设计到生产制造的一体化管理、支撑三维工艺设计、实现技术状态管理、满足制造执行系统等应用系统的集成需求。具体需求如下:

      For the above status quo and problems, a set of brand-new process realization framework based on 3D model needs to be established. Under the new framework, the integrated management of 3D model from design to manufacturing shall be strengthened, 3D process design shall be supported, technical state management shall be realized and the integration demands of application systems such as manufacturing execution system shall be met. The specific demands are as follows:

      (1)实现基于产品结构的技术状态管理。要以航天器型号为主线,基于产品结构实现型号设计技术状态的管理,基于产品结构对设计三维模型、各类设计技术要求文件进行统一管理。在此基础上,制造部门应当能够根据这些设计数据开展工艺规划,建立工艺BOM,从而方便后续的工艺详细设计并指导现场生产。

      (1) To realize technical state management based on product structure. Based on product structure, take the spacecraft models as the principal line to realize technical state management of model design and to uniformly manage 3D models designed and all kinds of technical requirement documents of design. Based on this, manufacturing department should be able to carry out process planning according to the design data and establish process BOM, thus facilitating subsequent detailed design of process and directing on-site production.

      (2)实现基于三维模型的结构化工艺设计。航天器总装工艺的大部分内容均为装配工艺。随着载人飞船等大型航天器的研制,系统越来越复杂,对总装操作人员的要求也越来越高。在这种情况下,二维工艺很难表达复杂的空间装配结构和位置。因此,充分利用三维模型的可视化优势,能够在工艺设计中完整地表达设计和工艺的意图,提高生产质量。

      (2) To realize structured process design based on 3D model. Most of the contents of spacecraft general assembly process are assembly process. With the development of large spacecrafts such as manned spacecraft, the systems are more and more complex and the requirements for operators of general assembly are higher and higher. In this case, it’s hard for 2D process to express complex space assembly structure and location. Therefore, full utilization of visualization advantage of 3D model can completely express the design and process intentions in process design and improve production quality.

      (3)实现与其他应用系统的集成。由于设计部门的产品数据管理平台与制造部门独立,要实现设计数据的自动接收,需要与设计部门的相关PLM系统实现集成。此外,工艺设计的结果最终要用于指导现场生产,还需要与用于总装制造执行过程管理的看板系统紧密集成。

      (3) To realize the integration with other application systems. Since the product data management platform of design department is independent of that of manufacturing department; to realize the automatic receiving of design data, integration shall be realized with the related PLM system of design department. In addition, the results of process design shall be used for directing on-site production eventually, so it still needs to be closely integrated with Kanban system used for manufacturing execution process management of general assembly.

      二、系统总体架构

      II. Overall Framework of System

      基于航天器总装工艺平台设计数据管理与工艺数据管理的需求,特提出图1所示的系统总体框架。

      Based on the demands for design data management and process data management of spacecraft general assembly process platform, the overall framework of system is hereby given, as shown in Figure 1.

      该平台的核心功能主要基于成熟的PLM平台构建。以Teamcenter为例,它是Siemens公司针对制造业提供的产品生命周期管理的解决方案,除了具有文档管理、权限管理、产品结构和配置管理、工作流管理等产品数据管理的基本功能外,还提供了制造工艺解决方案。其核心思想是将产品、工艺、工厂、制造资源等数据建立关联,从而保证数据的一致性,并实现数据的重用。

      The core function of the platform is based on mature PLM platform construction. Take Teamcenter as an example, it is a solution of Siemens Company to product lifecycle management provided for manufacturing; in addition to the basic function of product data management including document management, authority management, product structure and configuration management and workflow management, etc., it also provides a manufacturing process solution. Its core idea is to establish correlation among product, process, factory, manufacturing resources and other data, thus ensuring the consistency of data and realizing the reuse of data.

      基于该系统框架,业务实现过程如下:

      Based on this system framework, the business realization process is as follows:

      ●通过手动或系统集成实现自动的方式从设计部门获取三维模型等设计数据。通过系统的CAD集成接口导入工艺系统中。

      ● To obtain the design data including 3D model from design department manually or automatically through system integration. Import the data into process system via CAD integration interface of system.

      ●基于设计数据进行重构,并补充各类工艺设计输入数据形成工艺数字样机。

      ● To reconstruct based on design data and supplement all kinds of process design input data to form process digital prototype.

      ●针对特定型号的工艺数字样机,开展工艺规划与结构化工艺设计。在工艺设计过程中,可以利用Delmia工具基于三维模型进行装配仿真,验证工艺性。同样,在设计的三维模型基础上,可以使用Pro/E等CAD工具开展工装设计。

      ● To carry out process planning and structured process design aimed at specific types of process digital prototypes. In the process of process design, assembly simulation can be conducted by using Delmia tool based on 3D model to verify the manufacturability. Similarly, based on 3D model designed, CAD tools like Pro/E can be used for carrying out process equipment design.

      ●型号调度根据工艺设计结果在生产计划系统中进行计划排产。总装操作人员和检验人员通过看板执行系统查看工艺文档进行总装操作。

      ● For model scheduling, planning and scheduling shall be conducted in production planning system according to process design results. The operators and inspectors of general assembly check the process documents through Kanban execution system to conduct general assembly operation.

      ●航天器总装的生产进度及设计关注的重要数据需要从生产过程数据中提炼出来,回传到工艺系统,形成实做数字样机。

      ● The important data concerned by production schedule and design for general assembly of spacecraft needs to be extracted from production process data and returned to process system to form a practical digital prototype.

      三、 关键技术

      III. Key Technology

      1、设计数据接收

      1. Design data receiving

      由于总装部门对应通信卫星、载人航天等多个产品设计部门,这些部门的产品设计既有基于pro/e的三维模型,又有基于Catia的三维模型,这些设计模型由各个单位独立的产品数据管理系统进行管理。总装部门要接收这些异构CAD模型,并使用自己的产品数据管理系统管理起来,然后才能开展工艺设计等工作,这就需要建立一个统一的数据接收接口。

      Because general assembly department corresponds to multiple product design departments such as communication satellite and manned spaceflight, the product design of these departments includes not only 3D models based on pro/e but also 3D models based on Catia; these design models are managed by independent product data management system of each unit. General assembly department needs to receive these heterogeneous CAD models and use its own product data management system to manage them before carrying out process design and other work; as a result, a unified data receiving interface needs to be established.

      当设计部门需要下发设计数据时,在产品数据管理系统中创建关联设计数据的分发单对象,分发单通过审批后,自动将设计数据打包发送到中间服务器。

      When a design department needs to issue design data, it needs to create a distribution order object for associated design data in product data management system; after the distribution order is approved, it will automatically pack the design data and send it to intermediate server.

      设计数据包包含了设计BOM、零组件属性、模型属性、模型结构、模型与零组件关系、零组件与文档关系、工程更改属性、基线内容、有效性属性等信息。在结构上,数据包由数据规格描述文件和包含三维模型、通知单、更改单等各类数据的文件夹构成。各个设计部门从产品数据管理系统导出的数据包都必须生成这个统一的文件结构,这样,总装工艺系统才能够统一进行处理。

      Design data package contains the information such as design BOM, component attributes, model attributes, model structures, relations between models and components, relations between components and documents, engineering change attributes, baseline content and validity attributes, etc. Structurally, data package is composed of a data specification description file and a folder containing all kinds of data such as 3D models, notices and change orders, etc. The data package exported by each design department from product data management system must generate such a unified file structure; only in this way, can general assembly process system be processed uniformly.

      总装工艺系统可以定时或按需轮询中间服务器,如有新的数据包,则自动下载数据并导入到本系统中。数据导入过程中最关键的是三维模型的轻量化转换,由于导入的三维模型可能是Pro/E或Catia,需要分别调用PLM的Pro/E集成接口和Catia集成接口。

      General assembly process system can poll intermediate server at fixed time or as required; if there is a new data package, it will automatically download data and import it to this system. The most critical link in data importing process is lightweight conversion of 3D model; since the 3D model imported may be Pro/E or Catia, Pro/E integration interface and Catia integration interface of PLM shall to be invoked respectively.

      2、工艺数字样机搭建

      2. Construction of process digital prototype

      在航天器研制的不同研制阶段,其研制过程有所不同。特别是初样阶段为例,会装配多颗不同状态的结构星、电性星、热控星分别用于开展力学试验、电性能测试、热真空试验。这些星的产品结构既有相同部分也有不同部分。例如,结构星的结构件为真实件,而仪器、设备可以为工艺件;电性星的结构件可为工艺件,而仪器、设备为真实件。

      In different development stages of spacecraft, its development processes are different. In particular, take initial prototype stage as an example, multiple structure stars, electric property stars and thermal control stars of different states will be assembled for carrying out mechanical test, electric performance test and thermal vacuum test. There are the same and different parts for the structures of these stars. For example, the structural parts of structure star are real parts; while instruments and equipment can serve as process parts; the structural parts of electric property star can serve as process parts, while instruments and equipment are real parts.

      为了管理航天器型号的这些不同状态,需要型号主管工艺员基于设计产品结构分别建立结构星、电性星、热控星的BOM视图,从而形成多个状态的工艺数字样机。

      In order to manage these different states of spacecraft models, it is necessary for technologist in charge of models to establish BOM views of structure star, electric property star and thermal control star respectively based on product structures designed, thus forming process digital prototypes of multiple states.

      3、 结构化工艺设计

      3. Structured process design

      航天器总装工艺文档是根据卫星、飞船等总装设计的图样和文件,结合本单位的具体条件编制的生产性指导文件,既用于指导现场装配人员的具体工作,又是检验人员对产品进行检验的重要依据。因此,总装工艺的质量水平对于保证航天器总体性能、功能及可靠性以及研制周期有直接的影响。

      Spacecraft general assembly process documents are productive guiding documents prepared according to the patterns and documents designed for general assembly of satellite and spaceship, etc. by combining the specific conditions of this unit; they’re not only used for directing the specific work of on-site assembly personnel, but also the important basis for inspectors to inspect the products. Therefore, the quality level of general assembly has a direct impact on ensuring the overall performance of spacecraft, functions and reliability as well as developing cycle.

      航天器总装工艺文档的信息模型见图2。

      The information model of spacecraft general assembly process document is shown in Fig. 2.

      一个型号的航天器总装工艺由若干工艺分册组成,这些工艺分册既包括工艺准备阶段编好的正式工艺文档,也包括在总装生产过程中根据生产需要补充编制的临时工艺文档。每个工艺分册由工序、工步构成。

      Spacecraft general assembly process of one model is composed of several process fascicules which include not only official process documents prepared in the process preparation stage but also temporary process documents prepared supplementarily according to production needs in the process of general assembly production. Each process fascicule is composed of working procedures and steps.

      对于航天器总装工艺,其中有一项重要的要求,就是要详细记录各个设备的安装情况,既要确认设备是否准确安装,还要记录测力的实际值。这些需要记录的状态或参数共有111种,涉及直属件、结构舱板、紧固件、热敏电阻、多层组件等14类零部件。要在系统中管理好如此多的状态或参数信息需要建立执行记录这个专门的类,与操作步骤建立关联,从而形成结构化的数据,以便能够准确记录和查询。图3为工艺编制界面,可以为每个操作步骤插入多条执行记录要求。

      For spacecraft general assembly process, there is an important requirement; that is to record the installation condition of each set of equipment in detail; not only to confirm whether the equipment is installed accurately, but also to record the actual value of force measured. There are totally 111 kinds of states or parameters that need to be recorded, involving 14 categories of components including final assembly parts, structural deck, fasteners, thermistor and multilayer components, etc. A special category called execution record needs to be established in order to manage so much state or parameter information in the system, which shall be associated with operating steps, thus forming structured data so as to accurately record and query. Fig. 3 is process preparation interface; you can insert multiple execution record requirements for each operating step.

      4、三维模型的使用

      4. Use of 3D model

      从设计部门获取的三维设计模型导入PLM系统后,系统就同时拥有了原生CAD模型和轻量化的JT模型。由于不提供纸质图纸,这些三维模型就是表达设计意图的主要工具。而工艺人员要在工艺文件中使用三维模型表达工艺意图,可以通过三种模式来应用:

      After 3D design model obtained from design department is imported to PLM system, the system will have original CAD model and lightweight JT model. Since paper drawings are not provided, these 3D models are main tools to express design intents. If technologists want to use 3D models to express process intents in process documents, they can apply 3D models through three modes:

      (1)对三维模型截图。在PLM中,可以按产品结构查看产品的三维装配状态。为了描述一些特定装配步骤,工艺人员可以对该状态的三维画面进行截图并添加备注,以便操作人员能够清楚操作细节。通过二次开发相关菜单或按钮,可以让工艺人员在编制工艺的过程中快速完成这个过程。

      (1) To capture screen of 3D model. In PLM, product’s 3D assembly state can be viewed according to product structure. In order to describe some specific assembly steps, technologist can capture screen and add remarks for 3D image in this state so that the operator can be clear about the operational details. Through secondary development of related menu or button, technologist can quickly complete this process in the course of process preparation.

      (2)使用轻量化三维模型文件。使用三维模型截图的方式能够以图、文混合的方式描述特定操作步骤,但对一些复杂装配场景,使用静态图片进行描述就较为困难。利用JT、PVZ等轻量化三维模型的可视化效果,操作人员可以自由操作三维装配部件,多角度查看装配状态,以便正确完成装配。

      (2) To use lightweight 3D model file. Specific operational steps can be described in the form of text-graphics mixture by using screenshot of 3D model; but for some complex assembling scenes, it’s relatively difficult to describe with static pictures. By using the visualization effect of lightweight 3D models such as JT and PVZ, operator can freely operate 3D assembly parts and view the assembling state from multiple angles so as to complete the assembly correctly.

      (3)使用三维仿真视频。使用轻量化三维模型可以直观了解装配的最终状态,但无法以动画形势演示整个操作过程。通过将三维模型导入Tecnomatix等装配仿真软件,将生成的模拟装配过程的视频文件放到工艺文件中,可以让操作人员按照视频进行操作。

      (3) To use 3D simulation video. Lightweight 3D model can make us intuitively understand the final state of assembly, but it can’t demonstrate the whole operating process in the form of animation. Through importing 3D model in assembly simulation software like Tecnomatix, we can put the video file for simulating assembling process in the process document, thus making the operator operate according to the video.

      5、与MES的集成

      5. Integration with MES

      在PLM中完成结构化工艺文件编制后,要最终在生产现场供操作人员和检验人员使用。在航天器总装业务方面,北京卫星环境工程研究所已实施应用MES系统多年,通过开发看板系统实现了生产计划的下发、班组任务分工、产品配套管理和生产现场的执行管理。在看板系统中按结构查看工艺文件、按照工艺文件执行并实时记录相关参数、提交执行结果已成为航天器总装的成熟工作模式。

      After the completion of structured process document preparation in PLM, it shall be finally used by operators and inspectors on production site. In terms of spacecraft general assembly business, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering has implemented and applied MES system for many years; through developing Kanban system, it has realized issuance of production plan, division of team tasks, product supporting management and execution management of production site. Checking process documents in Kanban system according to structure, executing according to process documents and recording the relevant parameters in real time and submitting execution results have become the mature working mode of general assembly of spacecraft.

      图4为工艺系统与MES系统的集成框架示意图。在工艺系统中完成工艺编制后将形成的结构化工艺文件以xml文件的形式传递到MES系统,MES系统负责解析xml文件,将工艺文件以网页的形式展现给用户。用户可以通过网页查看操作内容、JT模型和仿真视频开展装配操作,并实时填写工艺文件要求的状态或参数。此外,MES系统还要处理工艺系统中由于工艺更改而发出的临时调度指令,将生产现场发现的工艺问题、生产执行状态反馈到工艺系统。

      Fig. 4 is the integrated framework schematic diagram of process system with MES system. After process preparation is completed in process system, the formed structured process document shall be transferred in the form of xml file to MES system, the latter is responsible for parsing xml file and showing the process document to user in the form of webpage. User can view the operating content, JT model and simulation video via webpage to carry out assembly operation, and fill in the states or parameters required by process document in real time. Moreover, MES system also needs to deal with temporary scheduling instructions given in process system due to process change and to feed back the process problems found on production site and production execution state to process system.

      四、 结束语

      IV. Conclusion

      通过对三维设计条件下航天器总装工艺的需求分析,本文基于PLM平台提出了航天器总装工艺系统的整体框架,并对设计数据接收、工艺数字样机搭建、结构化三维工艺编制、与MES系统集成等关键环节进行了阐述。从实际应用效果看,该方案解决了“三维下厂”的一些瓶颈问题,使三维模型的应用贯穿设计、工艺、制造的航天器研制全过程。

      Through analysis on spacecraft general assembly process under 3D design condition, this paper puts forward the overall framework of spacecraft general assembly process system based on PLM platform and expounds the key links such as design data receiving, construction of process digital prototype, structured 3D process preparation and integration with MES system. Seen from practical application effect, this solution has solved some bottleneck problems for “3D going to factories” and made the application of 3D model throughout the whole development process of spacecraft from design, process to manufacturing.

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